Andrzej Sapkowski

Andrzej Sapkowski (* 21. Juni 1948 in Łódź, Polen) ist ein polnischer Schriftsteller. Seine Bücher greifen – zumeist parodistisch – Motive slawischer Legenden und Märchen auf. Internationale Bekanntheit erlangte er vorwiegend durch seine Fantasyromane über den Hexer Geralt, der zum Protagonisten in mehreren Computerspielen, Filmen und Comics geworden ist.

Sapkowski studierte an der Universität Łódź Wirtschaftswissenschaften und arbeitete als Ökonom und Unternehmensberater, ehe er zunächst mit Übersetzungen auf sich aufmerksam machte; den Anfang machte er mit einem Text von Cyril M. Kornbluth. Für seine ab 1986 erscheinenden eigenen Erzählungen und Romane wurde er fünfmal mit dem Janusz-A.-Zajdel-Preis sowie mit dem Paszport Polityki ausgezeichnet; bislang liegen Übersetzungen in fünfzehn Sprachen vor. Für sein Engagement bei der Bewerbung von Łódź um den Titel einer europäischen Kulturhauptstadt wurde er 2008 zum Ehrenbürger seiner Heimatstadt ernannt.

Der von Narben im Gesicht gezeichnete Protagonist Geralt von Riva zieht gegen Bezahlung als professioneller Monsterjäger durch das Land. Seine Markenzeichen sind sein langes weißes Haar und zwei Schwerter auf dem Rücken. Eines aus Silber, das gegen Monster und Gefahren aus der Unterwelt eingesetzt wird und eines aus Stahl, das gegen menschliche Monster zum Zuge kommt.

Geralt von Riva wurde seit seiner frühen Kindheit auf der Burg Kaer Morhen zum Hexer ausgebildet. In der Bevölkerung wird erzählt, dass die Bruderschaft der Hexer nachts Kinder rauben und sie einer harten und grausamen Ausbildung unterziehen würde. Durch die Einnahme von Tränken mutieren während der Ausbildung unter anderem die Knochen- und Muskelstruktur, der genetische Code und der Stoffwechselhaushalt. Die meisten überleben nicht. Nur 3 von 10 Jungen, unter anderem Geralt von Riva, überstehen diese Prozedur und sind danach immun gegen Krankheiten und wenig empfänglich für Gifte, Magie und starke klimatische Veränderungen. Als Nebeneffekte treten bei Hexern Unfruchtbarkeit sowie besondere Erkennungszeichen auf. Ein Beispiel wären die Pigmentstörungen an der Haut oder bei den Haaren und die Katzenaugen, vertikale Pupillen, die den Hexern erlauben bei völliger Dunkelheit zu sehen.

Geralt wurde in Magie und im Kampf mit dem Schwert unterrichtet. Er ist als Einzelgänger ein meisterhafter Schwertkämpfer mit schnellen Reflexen, Alchemiekenntnissen und Meister der 5 Kampfzaubersprüche Axii, Igni, Aard, Yrden und Quen.

Geralt reist durch eine Fantasywelt (die an einigen Stellen mit Märchenmotiven aus den Werken der Gebrüder Grimm und des dänischen Schriftstellers Hans Christian Andersen durchsetzt ist), um gegen Bezahlung Monster und Fabelwesen zu erlegen. Angelegt sind die Bände als Episodenroman, die einzelnen Aufträge Geralts sind nur lose miteinander verknüpft. Durchgängiges Motiv ist Geralts fatale Liebe zu der Zauberin Yennefer. Sapkowskis Bildsprache erinnert in manchen Teilen an Italowestern, es dominieren Actionszenen und hintersinnige Dialoge.

Ein früherer Band, Wiedźmin („Der Hexer“) von 1990, wurde nicht ins Deutsche übertragen. Vier der fünf dort publizierten Kurzgeschichten sind allerdings – um eine Rahmenhandlung ergänzt – in Ostatnie życzenie (dt. Der letzte Wunsch) enthalten, welches somit nun den Einstieg in die Handlung bildet. Die fünfte Geschichte wurde in die 2000 erschienene Kurzgeschichtensammlung Coś się kończy, coś się zaczyna (dt. Etwas endet, etwas beginnt) aufgenommen.

Nach dem Erfolg der Kurzgeschichten verfasste Sapkowski eine daran anknüpfende Romanreihe um den Hexer Geralt. Die deutschen Übersetzungen aller Geralt-Geschichten stammen von Erik Simon:

2013 erschien auf Polnisch ein neuer Hexer-Roman, Sezon burz (dt. Zeit des Sturms, 2015), dessen Handlung etwa zwischen den Erzählungen aus Schwert der Vorsehung sowie Der letzte Wunsch und der eigentlichen Geralt-Saga zu verorten ist.

Einige Erzählungen um den Hexer Geralt wurden 2001 von dem Regisseur Marek Brodzki unter dem Titel Wiedźmin (dt: Geralt von Riva – Der Hexer) zuerst als Kinofilm und später als Miniserie in 13 Teilen à 45–50 Minuten für das polnische Fernsehen umgesetzt. Die deutsche DVD-Veröffentlichung des Kinofilms ist am 3. Mai 2010 erfolgt. 2014 wurde angekündigt, dass ein neuer auf den Büchern über Geralt basierender Spielfilm, ebenfalls mit dem Titel Wiedźmin, gedreht werden soll. Regisseur soll Tomasz Bagiński sein.

Zudem entstand 2001 im Verlag MAG das polnische Pen-&-Paper-Rollenspiel Wiedźmin: Gra Wyobraźni auf der Grundlage des Geralt-Zyklus. Mitte der 1990er lizenzierte Sapkowski seine Buchreihe an den polnischen Computerspielentwickler Metropolis Software House, der ein Action-Adventure plante, dieses jedoch nie vollendete. Stattdessen veröffentlichte das ebenfalls polnische Studio CD Projekt RED 2007 das Computer-Rollenspiel The Witcher, das 2011 mit The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings und 2015 mit The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt fortgesetzt wurde.

Sapkowski selbst zeigt kein Interesse an den Umsetzungen seiner Werke in Computerspiele. Inhaltliche Rückfragen des Entwicklers Metropolis ließ er unbeantwortet. Auf Nachfrage zu seiner Meinung über die Spiele von CD Projekt gab er an, niemals ein Computerspiel gespielt zu haben, da sie außerhalb seines Interessenfeldes lägen. Er greife lediglich auf öffentliche Berichterstattungen zurück und sei auch nicht in die Entwicklung einbezogen. Obwohl er den Machern von Computerspielen Respekt und Anerkennung für ihre Arbeit zolle, seien für ihn einzig die Bücher und seine eigenen Vorstellungen maßgeblich. Alles andere seien lediglich Adaptionen, die von ihm geschaffene Motive verwendeten, keinesfalls aber alternative Versionen oder Fortsetzungen seiner Bücher darstellten: “If we level the field between books and their adaptations in other media, only the former can be the ones telling a story. There can never be a different relation between a book and its adaptation, other than the one that without the book the adaptation would not exist at all.” (deutsch: „Wenn wir gleiche Voraussetzungen zwischen Büchern und ihren Adaptionen in anderen Medien schaffen, dann sind nur erstere in der Lage eine Geschichte zu erzählen. Es kann keine andere Beziehung zwischen einem Buch und seinen Adaptionen geben, als die, dass eine Adaption ohne das Buch überhaupt nicht existieren würde.“). Er lehnte es ab, crossmedial für einen kanonischen Zusammenhang zu sorgen oder Begleitwerke zu einer Adaption in einem anderen Medium zu schreiben. Obwohl er einräumte, dass die Spiele zur Bekanntheitssteigerung seiner Bücher beigetragen hätten, führte er den Erfolg der Witcher-Reihe von CD Projekt hauptsächlich auf den Erfolg seiner Bücher und seine Popularität als Autor zurück. Er zeigte sich auch nicht einverstanden damit, dass manche Verlage Artworks des Spiels für die Covergestaltung seiner Bücher verwendeten.

Seit 2014 gibt es Witcher Adventure Game, ein Brettspiel von CD Project und Fantasy Flight Games. Für 2016 ist von CD Project ein Pen-&-Paper-Rollenspiel angekündigt worden.

Dieser dreiteilige Zyklus ist im Schlesien und Böhmen des 15. Jahrhunderts angesiedelt. Geschildert wird die Irrfahrt des Medicus Reinmar von Bielau, der auf der Flucht vor der Inquisition und dem gehörnten Ehemann seiner Geliebten durch Schlesien irrt. In dieser Reihe mischt Sapkowski Fantasymotive mit der blutigen Geschichte der Hussitenkriege. Der erste Band Narrenturm war in Polen ein Bestseller und verkaufte sich auch in Deutschland hervorragend (in einer Übersetzung von Barbara Samborska).

Cerro de Montevideo

Cerro de Montevideo

Der Cerro de Montevideo ist ein im Stadtgebiet von Montevideo in Uruguay gelegener Hügel.

Der höchste Punkt des neben der Bucht von Montevideo gegenüber dem Hafen im Barrio Villa del Cerro befindlichen Cerro de Montevideo liegt auf einer Höhe von 134 Metern. Während der Zeit der Kolonialisierung Südamerikas diente er als strategischer Punkt, um den Schutz des Hafens zu gewährleisten. So ließ dann Bruno Mauricio de Zabala im Jahre 1717 auch eine Festung auf dem Gipfel des Hügels errichten, die den Namen Fuerte de San Miguel trug. Diese Festung existiert heute noch als Fortaleza General Artigas. Die Umbenennung auf diesen Namen erfolgte 1882, im Volksmund ist sie heutzutage als La Fortaleza del Cerro bekannt. Die Festung beherbergt das Museo Militar General Artigas, zu dessen Ausstellungsgegenständen von echten Soldaten bewachte Uniformen und Waffen gehören. Zudem befindet sich auf dem Cerro ein 148 Meter hoher Leuchtturm.

Der aus dunklen, hornblendereichen kristallinen Schiefern aufgebaute Cerro de Montevideo, bei dem es sich entgegen der teils in der Populär-Literatur vertretenen Auffassung nicht um einen erloschenen Vulkan handelt und dessen Basaltfelsen einen Bewuchs mit diversen Kakteenarten aufweisen, ist auch im rechten oberen Viertel des Wappens von Uruguay abgebildet.

Fortaleza General Artigas auf dem Cerro

Cerro de Montevideo im Jahre 1865

Sana Ay Ikaw Na Nga (2012 TV series)

Sana Ay Ikaw Na Nga (English: It Might Be You) is a Filipino drama series created and written by RJ Nuevas, under the direction of Roderick Lindayag and produced by GMA Network. It is a remake of the 2001 television series of the same title. In the modern version, Mikael Daez and Andrea Torres breathe new life to the roles previously portrayed by Dingdong Dantes and Tanya Garcia-Lapid. The series premiered on September 3, 2012, replacing Kasalanan Bang Ibigin Ka? on GMA Afternoon Prime, and September 6, 2012 worldwide via GMA Pinoy TV.

The series is also part of the networks set of shows for the last quarter of 2012, along with Magdalena and Yesterday’s Bride.

The series follows the story of love between a rich man and a poor woman whose romance would be marked by betrayal, lies and obsession.

The series which was confirmed to be allotted for 16 weeks is extended until February 2013 due to its impressive viewership and garnering high ratings as confirmed by Daez in an interview taken place during a December 2012 taping for the afternoon TV series.

The series concluded on February 8, 2013. It ran for 23 weeks with a total of 115 episodes. It replaced by Bukod Kang Pinagpala on its timeslot.

The story revolves around two lovers whose romance is against all odds.

Carlos Miguel Altamonte, a handsome, rich guy, meets the poor but charming barrio lass, Cecilia Fulgencio. It was love at first sight for both of them. There’s a hitch, however, Carlos Miguel is trapped in an arranged marriage with Olga Villavicer, a woman he doesn’t really love. Yet, Carlos Miguel and Cecilia’s love for each other proves strong enough to motivate the former to back out to the designed commitment and pursue his newfound bliss.

Carlos Miguel fought for his love for Cecilia and succeeded in wooing her to tie the knot with him. On the other hand, Olga, unable to accept defeat, sets an evil plan into action. A scheme that will entirely change Cecilia’s life and worse, lose her own identity.

Sana Ay Ikaw Na Nga (lit. Hope It’s Really You) was a hit television series originally created by RJ Nuevas GMA Network. The series ran for two successful years. It premiered on December 3, 2001 and concluded on April 25, 2003, and still remains as one of the network’s most popular and well-loved teledramas to this day.

The original version starred Dingdong Dantes and Tanya Garcia as Carlos Miguel Altamonte and Cecilia Fulgencio/Olga Villavicer respectively. It was under the direction of Gil Tejada, Jr. The said series was the very first project of Dantes and Garcia’s love team and also served as the launch vehicle for their respected careers.

Also parts of the original series are Angelu de Leon, Bobby Andrews, Jacklyn Jose, Elizabeth Oropeza, Tirso Cruz III, Maricar de Mesa, Eric Quizon and Joey de Leon.

August 3, 2012, the network announced that they had decided to recreate one of its very own masterpieces, Sana Ay Ikaw Na Nga, following the success of their 2011 remake of Ikaw Lang Ang Mamahalin.

The same date, the production team introduces the new actors that will portray the two main characters for the new version of the series, Mikael Daez and Andrea Torres.

While there are many similarities to the original version, many changes were made. Headwriter, RJ Nuevas, whose concept gave birth to the original series, further stated that compare to the original series, the new version’s storyline is more matured and daring. „We had to make the story more contemporary. This is a great challenge for all of us. After a decade, one of the most-loved teledramas in Philippine television will be given a different touch that is appropriate for today’s times. We’re speeding it up a little bit [because the series is good only for one season] and putting some more interesting twists and turns“, he added.

The production started filming on August 16, 2012 with series’ creator and headwriter, RJ Nuevas; series’ director, Roderick Lindayag; program manager, Hazel Abonita; creative head [for Afternoon Prime block], Roy Iglesias and creative director, Jun Lana; and Lilybeth Rasonable served as the overall in-charge of production.

The production is targeting to air the 2012 reboot for a total of 16 weeks.

Andrea Torres and Mikael Daez was chosen to play Cecilia and Carlos Miguel, respectively, amongst the roster of actors who auditioned for the roles. The two are very happy and beyond grateful that their mother studio is trusting them with their own drama series.

Daez’s first major break as an actor came when he landed the role of Lumad, one of Marian Rivera’s love interests in the epic series, Amaya. He later appeared in the primetime series My Beloved, where he first had the opportunity of working with Torres. The two never had scenes together, but everyone, back then, kept teasing them to each other. Unknown to both, they will end up as a pair in this afternoon drama series.

On the other hand, Torres reprises the role of Cecilia Fulgencio. She will play both the real and fake Cecilia [Olga] after her character’s face disfigured in a bombing incident in the story. Since she will play dual roles, Torres underwent several acting workshops as her preparation for her role.

Prior to this project, Torres once got so depressed at work that she even thought of quitting show business. She stated: „There was a point when I asked myself if I really had a future here. I gave myself until age 24 or 25. If nothing happened, I’d start looking in another direction“. Until her big break had finally come. „I waited for this for so long! It’s a good thing I didn’t lose hope or just decided to quit. I’m glad I still believed this would happen to me. And now I’m feeling the pressure. I’m working twice as hard to prove that I deserve it“, she added.

Although [in Philippine showbusiness‘ case] experimenting with a new pair is always a big gamble, the show’s program manager, Hazel Abonita is very optimistic about the program. „Sana Ay Ikaw Na Nga became very popular when it first aired ten years ago at time when viewers were starting to notice the network’s primetime offerings. The show opened many doors for its original lead stars, and we’re hoping that the new version will do the same for Mikael and Andrea,“ she said in a press statement.

Abonita’s group was also the same team behind the production of the high rating afternoon drama series Hiram na Puso, which starred Gina Alajar, Kris Bernal and Mark Herras.

Aside from Daez and Torres, Gabby Eigenmann and Chynna Ortaleza are also part of the remake as the two main antagonists. They played the roles of Gilbert Zalameda and Olga Villavicer, which originally portrayed by actor/director Eric Quizon and character actress, Maricar De Mesa, respectively.

Instead of using the original theme song, which is Cecile Azarcon’s classic composition, „Sana’y Ikaw Na Nga“, the 2012 version of the series uses the song „Ikaw Na Sana“, a Vehnee Saturno original piece. First performed by Butch Montejo and Kristine Mercaida, the song was first used as soundtrack of 1997 Viva Television-GMA Network co-production romantic-fantasy series [and its movie version] of the same title, which starred 90’s famous loveteam, Angelu de Leon and Bobby Andrews. Mark Bautista and Rachelle Ann Go interpreted the song for the modernized remake.

The pilot episode of the series garnered an 8.7 point lead over its counterpart programs in ABS-CBN and TV5. According to both AGB and Nielsen Television Audience Measurement (Nielsen TAM) Mega-Manila overnight household ratings date (September 3, 2012), Sana Ay Ikaw na Nga garnered 16.4% ratings while Kung Ako Ay Iiwan Mo and Love You A Thousand Times garnered 7.7% and 4.4% ratings, respectively.

On October 24, 2012, the show garnered 52.4% audience share (Mega Manila Household Audience Shares – Nielsen TV Audience Measurement) against 19.1% audience shares of Kung Ako’y Iiwan Mo of ABS-CBN.

For the period November 19, 2012 to January 25, 2013 (based on overnight data), the show also went ahead of the rival network’s newly launched program Paraiso, registered a commanding average TV rating of 15.1% against 8.7% of the competing program. The show also ahead of its competitors in the viewer-rich areas of Urban Luzon and Mega Manila.

Kommensialisme

Kommensialisme er en form for biologisk samliv der den ene parten drar fordel av samlivet, mens den andre parten verken blir påvirket positiv eller negativ. Ordet kommer fra latin com mensa som betyr «deler et bord», og ble først brukt for å skildre måten mange dyr nyttegjør seg av andre dyrs matoverskudd, t.d. åtselseterer som venter til predatoren er ferdig med byttet sitt før de forsyner seg.

Mange organismeer fester seg til andre organismer for å komme seg fra en plass til en annen. Denne formen for kommensialisme omfatter i hovedsak leddyr, t.d. midd på insekter, bokskorpioner på pattedyr og tusenbein på fugl, men er også kjent fra virveldyr som sugefisk.

Dyr som blir funnet på andre organismer uten at de gjør skade, blir kalt for foretiske dyr.

Når en organisme lever i en annen organisme uten å gjøre skade, kalles for inkvilin. Et eksempel på et slikt dyr er hakkespetten, fordi denne fuglen lever inne i et hull i et tre. Eller ulike planter som vokser på trær.

En indirekte form for kommensialisme blir kalt for metabiose. Disse dyrene drar fordel av en annen organisme etter at den har dødd. Et godt eksempel på dette er eremittkrepsen, som lever i skall fra døde snegler.

Noen biologer mener at tette bånd mellom to organismer nødvendigvis må ha en positiv eller negativ virkning på begge partene, og at organismene er enten mutualistiske eller parasittiske på en måte som ikke enda er oppdaget.

Vickers

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?).
Les entreprises étant sujet à controverse, n’oubliez pas d’indiquer dans l’article les critères qui le rendent admissible.

Logo originel de Vickers Limited

Vickers, fondé initialement sous le nom Vickers Company en 1828, était un fabricant britannique d’équipement militaire traditionnellement basé à Barrow-in-Furness. Le nom Vickers est resté jusqu’au XXe siècle, malgré une série de changements et de fusions. Aujourd’hui Vickers est une partie de BAE Systems.

La compagnie Vickers, une fonderie d’acier, fut fondée à Sheffield, Angleterre, par Edward Vickers et son beau-père George Naylor en 1828. Naylor était déjà copropriétaire de la fonderie Naylor & Sanderson et le frère d’Edward possédait une forge. La nouvelle compagnie appelée « Naylor Vickers and Company » fut rapidement contrôlée par Edward grâce à ses revenus d’investissement dans les chemins de fer. Elle devint rapidement connue, entre autres, pour les cloches qu’elle produisait. En 1854, les fils d’Edward, Thomas et Albert, joignirent la compagnie.

En 1867, elle devint publique sous le nom de « Vickers, Sons & Company » et se diversifia: arbres moteurs de navires en 1868, hélices en 1872, presse de forge en 1882, blindages en 1888 et leurs premières pièces d’artillerie en 1890. Vickers acheta ensuite le constructeur naval « Barrow in Furness » en 1897, avec en prime sa filiale « Maxim Nordenfeldt Guns And Ammunitions Company » (fondée par Hiram Maxim et fabricant de la mitrailleuse Maxim et de la mitrailleuse Nordenfeldt). Vickers change le nom de Barrow pour « Naval Construction Yard » et la Maxim pour « Vickers, Sons & Maxim ». Grâce à ces acquisitions, Vickers était devenu une compagnie intégrée dans le domaine naval, pouvant fournir navires, pièces de rechange et armements. En 1901, la Royal Navy reçut son premier sous-marin, le HMS Holland 1 (en), de Naval Construction Yard. En 1902, Vickers acheta une participation à cinquante pour cent de la compagnie navale John Brown and Company sur la rivière Clyde.

En 1905, Vickers continue sa diversification en achetant le constructeur automobile « Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company », une filiale de « Wolseley Sheep-Shearing Machine Company ». Puis en 1911, on achète une participation majoritaire dans le manufacturier de torpilles « Whitehead and Company ». Le nom de la compagnie mère est changé pour « Vickers Ltd » en 1911 et on crée à la même occasion une division de construction d’avions (Vickers Ltd Aviation Department). Les premiers appareils, de type Vickers R.E.P. Type Monoplane, sont basés sur une licence de Robert Esnault-Pelterie.

En 1919, la compagnie de fournitures électriques British Westinghouse (en) est acquise et devient la « Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company » qui deviendra rapidement impliquée dans le rail.

En 1927, Vickers fusionne avec une compagnie d’ingénierie, la compagnie Armstrong Whitworth du bassin industriel de Tyne et Wear, elle-même née de la fusion des constructeurs W. G. Armstrong et J. Whitworth ; cette absorption donne naissance au groupe industriel « Vickers-Armstrongs, Ltd ». Les deux compagnies s’étaient développées dans les mêmes secteurs de l’armement et de la construction navale : Armstrong-Whitworth Co. avait une usine de pièces d’artillerie à Elswick (en) et des chantiers navals à High Walker (en) sur la rivière Tyne. Ce dernier devint le Naval Yard, de la nouvelle compagnie et ceux de Vickers sur la côte ouest de la Grande-Bretagne devinrent les Naval Construction Yard.

En 1929, les chemins de fer possédés par la compagnie fusionnée et ceux de Cammell Laird formèrent le Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon (MCCW).

La division aéronautique de Armstrong Whitworth resta indépendante et devint en 1928 la « Vickers (Aviation) Ltd ». L’acquisition de la compagnie Supermarine, qui deviendra célèbre grâce à son Supermarine Spitfire durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, se fit sous le nom de Supermarine Aviation Works (Vickers) Ltd. Finalement la fusion des deux entités en 1938, sous le nom de « Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) Ltd », se fit sans changer la liste des noms de produits de chacune.

En 1960, le gouvernement britannique força le regroupement des industries aéronautiques de Grande-Bretagne. La division aéronautique de Vickers fusionna avec celles de Bristol, English Electric et Hunting Aircraft dans la nouvelle British Aircraft Corporation. Vickers possédait 40 % de la nouvelle compagnie, English Electric 40 % et Bristol 20 % et BAC possédait 70 % de Hunting. La division Supermarine cessa ses opérations en 1963 et le nom ne fut plus utilisé par Vickers après 1965.

En 1977, la loi Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act (en) nationalisa BAC qui fut absorbée par le groupe British Aerospace devenu aujourd’hui le BAE Systems. La section construction navale de Vickers, la « Vickers Armstrong Shipbuilders » en 1955 mais devenue la « Vickers Limited Shipbuilding Group » en 1968, fut forcée de fusionner par la même loi dans British Shipbuilders. Elle fut cependant privatisée en 1986 sous le nom de « Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd » (VSEL) et acheté ensuite par Marconi Marine. Elle fait maintenant partie de BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines (en).

Vickers fut également amputée de son secteur de la production d’acier, incorporé dans British Steel, par la nationalisation. Ce qui restait devint Vickers plc. En 1986, la compagnie acheta l’usine d’armement Royal Ordnance Factories, de Leeds, qui devint « Vickers Defence Systems ». Elle acheta également ensuite la compagnie d’ingénérie automobile Cosworth en 1990, le manufacturier suédois d’hydrojets Kamewa (en) en 1996 et le producteur de moteur de navires norvégien Ulstein en 1998. Elle se départit en 1998 de Rolls-Royce Motors et Cosworth au profit de Volkswagen.

Vickers resta indépendante jusqu’en 1999 mais fut achetée par Rolls-Royce plc cette année-là. La division armement fut vendue à Alvis plc et pris le nom de Alvis Vickers. Le reste de Vickers PLC devint la division « Vinters » de Rolls-Royce en mars 2003. Le nom Vickers a disparu complètement quand Alvis Vickers fut vendu à BAE Systems en 2004 et devint BAE Systems Land Systems.

La production militaire et civils de Vickers comprit tour à tour ou parallèlement des navires, des mitrailleuses, des pièces d’artillerie, des avions et des chars de combat. En autre :

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Cyclone Pam

Severe Tropical Cyclone Pam of 2015 was the most intense tropical cyclone in the southern hemisphere in 2015 and regarded as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of Vanuatu. A total of 15–16 people lost their lives either directly or indirectly as a result of Pam with many others injured. The storm’s impacts were also felt, albeit to a lesser extent, to other islands in the South Pacific, most notably the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and New Zealand. Pam is the second most intense storm of the South Pacific Ocean according to pressure, after Zoe of 2002; Pam is also the third most intense storm in the Southern Hemisphere by the same metric, only after Zoe of 2002 and Gafilo in 2004. In addition, Pam had the highest 10-minute sustained wind speed of any South Pacific tropical cyclone; it is tied with Cyclone Orson, Cyclone Monica and Cyclone Fantala for having the strongest winds of any cyclone in the Southern Hemisphere. Thousands of homes, schools and buildings were damaged or destroyed, with an estimated 3,300 people displaced as a result.

Pam formed on March 6 east of the Solomon Islands and tracked slowly in a generally southward direction, slowly intensifying as it did so. Two days later, the disturbance reached tropical cyclone intensity and, over subsequent days, Pam gradually strengthened before reaching Category 5 cyclone status on both the Australian and Saffir–Simpson scales on March 12. The next day, Pam’s sustained winds peaked at 250 km/h (155 mph) as the storm moved through Vanuatu, passing near several constituent islands and making direct hits on others. On March 14, Pam’s winds began to slowly weaken, but its pressure dropped further to a minimum of 896 mbar (hPa; 26.46 inHg) before rising shortly afterwards. Over the next few days, the cyclone’s weakening accelerated as it moved poleward. On March 15, Pam passed northeast of New Zealand before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone that same day.

Early in Pam’s history, a damaging storm surge was felt in Tuvalu, forcing a state of emergency declaration after 45 percent of the nation’s residents were displaced. Torrential rainfall occurred in the southeastern Solomon Islands, particularly in the Santa Cruz Islands. In Vanuatu, all emergency centers were activated and relief personnel were put on standby with Pam assessed as having the potential to be one of the nation’s worst tropical cyclones. Catastrophic damage occurred as the storm moved through the archipelago, particularly in Efate, location of the Ni-Vanuatu capital of Port Vila; and the Tafea islands of Erromango and Tanna. The cyclone crippled Vanuatu’s infrastructure: an estimated 90 percent of the nation’s buildings were impacted by the storm’s effects, telecommunications were paralyzed, and water shortages continue to plague the small nation. Pam later brought heavy winds and rough surf to New Zealand’s North Island during its weakening stages.

On March 6, 2015, the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) reported that Tropical Disturbance 11F had developed about 1,140 kilometres (710 mi) to the northwest of Nadi, Fiji. The system was located underneath an upper level ridge of high pressure and within an area favourable for further development with low-moderate vertical windshear. As a result, weather forecast models anticipated the development of a significant tropical cyclone over the coming days. Initially, the disturbance floundered east of the Solomon Islands and slowly strengthened, reaching tropical depression intensity on March 8. The storm’s appearance and areal coverage of showers remained stationary until the following day, when the formation of rainbands wrapping about the centre of the system prompted the FMS to upgrade the storm’s classification to a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone scale, assigning it the name Pam. Atmospheric conditions at the time were slightly favorable for continued development as the storm continued to slowly track along the southern periphery of a high-pressure area to its north.

Following the storm’s naming, Pam began to curve southwards around midday on March 9. Computer models continued to point towards the possibility of rapid intensification occurring as the cyclone approached Vanuatu. Significant development in Pam’s organization took place throughout the remainder of the day into March 10. The cyclone’s circulation centre quickly tightened, with the central dense overcast atop it persisting in strength. At 18:00 UTC on March 10, the FMS upgraded the system to category 3 strength, making it a severe tropical cyclone. Shortly after, microwave imagery revealed a primordial eye-feature developing within Pam; this became apparent on visible light images on March 11. That day, Pam became quasi-stationary east of the Santa Cruz Islands before resuming its prior southwesterly motion towards the end of March 11. The storm’s eye continued to warm as its cloud tops cooled such that at 12:00 UTC, the FMS assessed Pam to have reached Category 5 intensity on the Australian cyclone scale. Six hours later, the JTWC estimated that the storm reached Category 5-equivalent intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale as Pam was east of Penama.

Early on March 13, the JTWC determined Pam reached its peak one-minute sustained winds of 270 km/h (165 mph) as it neared Vanuatu; this was increased to 280 km/h (175 mph) in post-season reanalysis. Several hours later, the cyclone began to curve towards the south-southeast, allowing Pam to pass just east of Efate. At that time, the FMS estimated Pam as having record-breaking 250 km/h (155 mph) ten-minute sustained winds. The storm’s winds gradually slowed afterwards as Pam tracked west of Tafea. However, the FMS indicated that the cyclone’s pressure dropped further to a minimum of 896 mbar (hPa; 26.46 inHg) on March 14, making Pam the second most intense tropical cyclone in the South Pacific basin after Cyclone Zoe in 2002. This intensity was short-lived, however, as Pam’s central pressure began rising shortly thereafter as the storm accelerated southeastward. After 12:00 UTC that day, Pam left the area of responsibility of the FMS and entered the monitoring region of New Zealand’s Wellington Tropical Cyclone Centre (TCWC Wellington), who estimated that Pam weakened to Category 4 intensity on March 15 after maintaining Category 5 intensity for 36 hours. Shortly after, the storm’s eye faded away and Pam’s low level circulation became displaced from its associated thunderstorms, signalling a rapid weakening phase. Later on March 15, both agencies discontinued issuing advisories as Pam entered a phase of extratropical transition while affecting northeastern New Zealand. The system moved eastwards, and eventually dissipated over the waters of the South Pacific on March 22.

By March 12, the National Disaster Management Office in Vanuatu activated all emergency operation centres in the country. Officials reported difficulty in contacting outlying islands where there was poor infrastructure. In those areas, they advised residents to identify nearby shelters in case evacuation was necessary. Across the country, residents spent the day on March 12 stocking up on supplies for the storm. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies stated volunteers were on standby for assessments in Fiji, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu once the storm passed. Supplies of water and water purification systems were pre-positioned for the countries. Acting director of the Vanuatu National Disaster Management Office, Peter Korisa, warned that should Pam strike the capital of Port Vila it could be worse than Cyclone Uma in 1987 which killed 50 people and caused US$150 million in damage.

The death toll from Cyclone Pam is uncertain, with totals from the Vanuatu Government and United Nations differing. According to Vanuatu, 11 people lost their lives as a direct result of Pam. Four others died at Vila Central Hospital shortly after the storm’s passage, though these are considered indirectly related. According to the United Nations, a total of 16 people were killed. In the immediate aftermath, media outlets indicated unconfirmed reports of 44 casualties in the many villages destroyed by the storm; however, these claims were never substantiated.

According to UNICEF, at least 132,000 people have been impacted by Tropical Cyclone Pam, of whom 54,000 are children. Communication across the country was crippled, with only one cellular tower in Port Vila remaining operational. The power grid was devastated as well and officials estimated repairs could take weeks. Four days after the storm, nearly 60 of the nation’s inhabited islands remained cut-off from the outside world. UNICEF has estimated that up to 90 percent of the buildings in Vanuatu have been affected by Tropical Cyclone Pam. Hospitals, schools and water supply are either compromised or destroyed. Journalist Michael McLennan in Port Vila likened the effects of Pam to a bomb: „It’s like a bomb has gone through…It’s really quite apocalyptic.“ Sune Gudnitz, head of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), stated that Pam was indeed a worst-case scenario for Vanuatu.

Catastrophic damage occurred on the islands of Erromango and Tanna. Communication with the islands was completely severed during the storm, and first contact with residents did not take place until two days after Pam’s passage. A pilot who flew to the islands reported that all infrastructure had been crippled, with every structure severely damaged or destroyed. Concrete buildings held up during the storm, but lost their roofs. Locals reported two fatalities on Tanna, though this was unconfirmed by officials. Additionally, there was no drinkable water left on the island. Approximately 95 percent of the homes on Tongoa were reportedly destroyed.

North of Efate, the small island of Mataso was largely destroyed with only two homes left standing after the storm. Residents sought refuge in caves to ride out the storm; two people lost their lives there.

According to UNESCO, a total of US$268.4 million is needed for total recovery and rehabilitation of the nation.

In addition to Vanuatu, Cyclone Pam had direct impacts on New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands. The cyclone also indirectly affected the island nations of Fiji, Tuvalu and Kiribati.

Prior to the formation of Cyclone Pam, flooding from king tides, which peaked at 3.4 m (11 ft) on 19 February 2015, caused considerable road damage across the multi-island nation of Tuvalu. Between March 10 and 11, waves, estimated to be 3–5 m (9.8–16.4 ft), associated with the cyclone swept across the low-lying islands of Tuvalu. The atolls of Nanumea, Nanumanga, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Vaitupu were most affected. Significant damage to agriculture and infrastructure occurred. The outermost islands were hardest hit, with one flooded in its entirety. A state of emergency was subsequently declared on March 14. Water supplies on Nui were contaminated by seawater and rendered undrinkable. An estimated 45 percent of the nation’s nearly 10,000 people were displaced, according to Prime Minister Enele Sopoaga. Damage across the nation amounted to US$92 million.

Early in the Cyclone Pam’s development, it produced torrential rains and gale-force winds over the Solomon Provinces of Malaita, Makira-Ulawa, and Temotu. Trees and crops were flattened, and residents sheltered in schools and in caves after their homes were destroyed. Rainfall was particularly intense over the Santa Cruz Islands, where a 24‑hour total of 495 mm (19.5 in) was observed. Continuous heavy rain prompted the evacuation of 500 students in West Guadalcanal.

The storm later struck the remote islands of Anuta and Tikopia on March 12, causing extensive damage. Approximately 1,500 homes were damaged or destroyed in the region and 5,000 people were directly. Powerful winds toppled numerous trees. Several injuries were reported, though exact numbers are unknown. Tikopia’s lost roughly 90 percent of its food crop and fruit trees; water sources were also contaminated. Contact with Anuta was lost as all its phone lines failed; the island remained isolated for at least a week after Pam’s passage.

Although not in the direct path of Pam, officials in Fiji warned residents in low-lying areas of potential flooding from the system’s outer rain bands. On March 11, the Northern Division activated its Emergency Operations Centre and directed precautionary measures to be undertaken, with the expectation that flash flooding and coastal flooding from high tides were set to occur. Emergency shelters for possible evacuations were identified by March 12. Fears concerning the Fijian infrastructure’s susceptibility to winds and flooding were raised by the Disaster Management Office. Later that day, cruise operators announced that trips to the Yasawa Islands would be canceled due to the storm. Anticipating dangerous conditions from the cyclone, the fifth leg of the Volvo Ocean Race was postponed until at least 01:00 UTC on March 16. Other residents were warned not to venture out to sea as Pam passed nearby.

A pre-cyclone alert was raised in New Caledonia as a precaution. On March 13, 2015 at noon local time, this was raised to the first level of cyclone alert for the Loyalty Islands and for the Isle of Pines. The second and highest level of cyclone alert was raised at 03:00 local time on March 14, 2015 for the islands of Maré and Lifou, and the alert ended at 17:00 and 20:00 local time on the same day. All alert levels were then lifted on Sunday, March 15 at 08:00 local time.

On the whole, material damages were relatively light, with a few fallen trees, a few roofs blown out, and only 26 people in need of emergency housing (18 on Maré and 8 on Lifou). At the height of the storm, a maximum of 6000 inhabitants suffered power outages, but power was then restored fairly quickly to the vast majority. As perceived by the population of the Loyalty Islands, the worst damage was in fact the loss of the yams harvest, which will affect numerous communities of both Maré and Lifou, both as a means of subsistence for the coming season and as a cultural apparatus for ceremonies like weddings.

Civil Defense officials in New Zealand have issued severe weather warnings, that the remnants of Cyclone Pam could bring unprecedented damage to much of the northeastern coastal areas of the North Island. Swells of 6–8 m (20–26 ft) were forecast with potential for damage exceeding that of Cyclone Bola – which struck New Zealand’s North Island in 1988.

On March 15 gale-force winds began affecting northern parts of the North Island and continued into the following day, with gusts peaking at 148 km/h (92 mph) in Kaeo and 144 km/h (89 mph) in Hicks Bay. Some voluntary evacuations took place in the Gisborne region. Power outages took place in the Whangarei District. Heavy rains accompanied the system as well, with over 200 mm (7.9 in) falling in areas between Hicks Bay and Gisborne. Along the coast, waves reached 4.5 m (15 ft) in Tutukaka and 5–6 m (16–20 ft) near Tolaga Bay. The cyclone also brought cooler temperatures throughout most of the North Island and northern South Island.

The storm later brought winds up to 140 km/h (87 mph) to the Chatham Islands (pop: 650), prompting the declaration of a civil defense emergency. Downed trees cut power to portions of the islands, though no major damage was reported. Twelve people sought refuge in a public shelter. A wharf on the north side of the islands was damaged by rough seas.

An RAAF Lockheed P-3 Orion was dispatched to the eastern Solomon Islands for aerial damage surveys.

Before the disaster, many developed countries pledged funds to assist smaller, developing nations with disaster preparation and relief efforts. Jim Yong Kim, president of the World Bank, has called for insurance schemes to help the Vanuatu government respond to natural disasters. United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon highlighted that climate change leads to increased risks of natural disasters.

While attending the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan, Vanuatu President Baldwin Lonsdale requested international assistance for his people. Immediately following the cyclone’s impact in Vanuatu, governments across the world began providing aid relief funds. Sufficient repairs of Bauerfield International Airport were completed by March 14 to allow the first flights from Australia carrying aid to arrive. Initial monetary assistance included $3.8 million from Australia, $2.9 million from the United Kingdom, $1.8 million from New Zealand, and $1.05 million from the European Union, $250,000 from India and promised to extend any further assistance required. The French overseas territories of New Caledonia and French Polynesia have granted €300,000 (US$318,000) of immediate emergency aid.

Australia, France, and New Zealand enacted a coordinated response within the framework of the FRANZ agreement, in which France would carry out damage assessments while Australia and New Zealand would provide humanitarian aid. In accordance with this, France ordered the frigate Vendémiaire to sail from Nouméa, New Caledonia, to conduct surveys along with aircraft from the island territory. On March 15, Australia confirmed that supplies for up to 5,000 people would be sent via two Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Boeing C-17 Globemaster III aircraft. A Lockheed C-130 Hercules was also deployed with emergency evaluation personnel and Department of Foreign Affairs officials to determine specifics on aid required. On March 15 a CASA-235 transport plane was dispatched from the New Caledonian Armed Forces airbase carrying engineers to repair the water supply, a Red Cross technician and spare parts to enable the reopening of the airport to scheduled flights. A second CASA-235 was dispatched from French Polynesia carrying tools for rebuilding, satelitte communications, tents and logistics supplies for 10 days.

More than four days after the storm, much of the affected population had yet to be reached. A lack of airstrips and deepwater ports hampered the speed of relief operations. Save the Children’s Vanuatu director, Tom Skirrow, stated that the logistical challenges presented with Cyclone Pam greatly exceeded that of Typhoon Haiyan which left over 7,350 dead or missing in the Philippines during November 2013. Residents on Moso Island, located just north of Efate, were forced to drink saltwater. Survivors stated that no aid had reached them as of March 17, and most were forced to scavenge for food. It was not until March 27, two weeks after Pam struck, that aid finally reached all of the affected islands.

On March 24, IsraAid reached Tongoa in the Shepherds Islands group by boat, and distributed over 40 tons of rice, flour and water to twelve villages and eight schools on two islands leveled by the cyclone.

The Adventist Development and Relief Agency responded by distributing shelter kits, water filtration kits and food packages, as well as setting up 10 evacuation centres in Port Vila. In total, ADRA assisted more than 10,000 people in 2586 households across three islands.

New Zealand started providing aid to Tuvalu on March 14. Owing to the severity of damage in the nation, the local chapter of the Red Cross enacted an emergency operation plan on March 16 which would focus on the needs of 3,000 people. The focus on the 81,873 CHF operation was to provide essential non-food items and shelter. Flights carrying these supplies from Fiji began on March 17. Prime Minister Sopoaga stated that Tuvalu appeared capable of handling the disaster on its own and urged that international relief be focused on Vanuatu. Tuvalu’s Disaster Coordinator, Suneo Silu, said the priority island is Nui as sources of fresh water were contaminated. On March 17, the Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced a donation of US$61,000 in aid to Tuvalu. UNICEF and Australia have committed to deliver aid to Tuvalu.

As of 22 March, 71 families (40 percent of the population) of Nui remain displaced and were living in 3 evacuation centres or with other families and on Nukufetau, 76 people (13 percent of the population) remain displaced and were living in 2 evacuation centres.

The Situation Report published on 30 March reported that on Nukufetau all the displaced people have returned to their homes. Nui suffered the most damage of the three central islands (Nui, Nukufetau and Vaitupu); with both Nui and Nukufetau suffering the loss of 90% of the crops. Of the three northern islands (Nanumanga, Niutao, Nanumea), Nanumanga suffered the most damage, with 60-100 houses flooded and damage to the health facility. The number of influenza cases that had been reported in Nanumanga had stabilized.

Ulpius Limenius

Ulpius Limenius (died 8 April AD 349) was a Roman politician who was appointed consul in AD 349.

Presumably a member of the Nobiles and a member of the eastern Senate, Limenius was appointed Proconsul of Constantinople in AD 342. He was an opponent of the rhetoritician Libanius, and during his tenure as Proconsul he supported the accusations of Libanius’ rivals, charging him with practicing magic and treason, thereby forcing Libanius to leave Constantinople.

Although he was an eastern provincial, he was assigned the dual role of Praetorian prefect of Italy (which the emperor Constans gave to him when he created the new Prefecture, splitting Italy off from the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum) as well as Praefectus urbi of Rome. He held these posts from 12 June 347 to 8 April 349. This unusual appointment not only reflected Constans’ upbringing in Constantinople, but was also probably indicative of a long-standing relationship with a trusted subordinate. In AD 348, Limenius, as Urban Prefect, probably celebrated the Secular Games in the emperor’s name, as Constans was absent from Rome.

During his time as Praetorian Prefect, he received a number of imperial laws to implement. One, dated 28 March 349, was aimed at the preservation of columns and monuments, as well as preventing the violation of tombs in the city of Rome. Another, dated 12 February 349, directed Limenius to crack down on counterfeiters.

In AD 349, Limenius was appointed consul prior alongside Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius.

A pagan, Limenius died on 8 April 349, during his term as consul.

Cass Sunstein

Cass Robert Sunstein (born September 21, 1954) is an American legal scholar, particularly in the fields of constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, and law and behavioral economics, who was the Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2012. For 27 years, Sunstein taught at the University of Chicago Law School. Sunstein is the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard Law School.

Studies of legal publications between 2009 and 2014 have found Sunstein to be the most frequently cited American legal scholar by a wide margin, followed by Erwin Chemerinsky and Richard A. Epstein.

Sunstein was born on September 21, 1954 in Concord, Massachusetts to Marian (née Goodrich), a teacher, and Cass Richard Sunstein, a builder, both Jewish. He graduated in 1972 from Middlesex School and in 1975 with a B.A. from Harvard College, where he was a member of the varsity squash team and the Harvard Lampoon. In 1978, Sunstein received a J.D. magna cum laude from Harvard Law School, where he was executive editor of the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review and part of a winning team of the Ames Moot Court Competition. He served as a law clerk first for Justice Benjamin Kaplan of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (1978–1979) and later for Justice Thurgood Marshall of the United States Supreme Court (1979–1980).

Sunstein worked in the Office of Legal Counsel in the Justice Department as an attorney-advisor (1980–1981) and then took a job as an assistant professor of law at the University of Chicago Law School (1981–1983), where he also became an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science (1983–1985). In 1985, Sunstein was made a full professor of both political science and law; in 1988, he was named the Karl N. Llewellyn Professor of Jurisprudence in the Law School and Department of Political Science. The university honored him in 1993 with its „distinguished service“ accolade, permanently changing his title to Karl N. Llewellyn Distinguished Service Professor of Jurisprudence in the Law School and Department of Political Science.

Sunstein was the Samuel Rubin Visiting Professor of Law at Columbia Law School in the fall of 1986 and a visiting professor at Harvard Law School in the spring 1987, winter 2005, and spring 2007 terms. He teaches courses in constitutional law, administrative law, and environmental law, as well as the required first-year course „Elements of the Law“, which is an introduction to legal reasoning, legal theory, and the interdisciplinary study of law, including law and economics. In the fall of 2008, he joined the faculty of Harvard Law School and began serving as the director of its Program on Risk Regulation:

The Program on Risk Regulation will focus on how law and policy deal with the central hazards of the 21st century. Anticipated areas of study include terrorism, climate change, occupational safety, infectious diseases, natural disasters, and other low-probability, high-consequence events. Sunstein plans to rely on significant student involvement in the work of this new program.

On January 7, 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that Sunstein would be named to head the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA). That news generated controversy among progressive legal scholars and environmentalists. Sunstein’s confirmation was long blocked because of controversy over allegations about his political and academic views. On September 9, 2009, the Senate voted for cloture on Sunstein’s nomination as Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. The motion passed in a 63–35 vote. The Senate confirmed Sunstein on September 10, 2009 in a 57–40 vote.

In his research on risk regulation, Sunstein is known for developing, together with Timur Kuran, the concept of availability cascades, wherein popular discussion of an idea is self-feeding and causes individuals to over weigh its importance.

Sunstein’s books include After the Rights Revolution (1990), The Partial Constitution (1993), Democracy and the Problem of Free Speech (1993), Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict (1996), Free Markets and Social Justice (1997), One Case at a Time (1999), Risk and Reason (2002), Why Societies Need Dissent (2003), Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle (2005), Radicals in Robes: Why Extreme Right-Wing Courts Are Wrong for America (2005), Are Judges Political? An Empirical Analysis of the Federal Judiciary (2005), Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge (2006), and, co-authored with Richard Thaler, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (2008).

Sunstein’s 2006 book, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge, explores methods for aggregating information; it contains discussions of prediction markets, open-source software, and wikis. Sunstein’s 2004 book, The Second Bill of Rights: FDR’s Unfinished Revolution and Why We Need It More than Ever, advocates the Second Bill of Rights proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Among these rights are a right to an education, a right to a home, a right to health care, and a right to protection against monopolies; Sunstein argues that the Second Bill of Rights has had a large international impact and should be revived in the United States. His 2001 book, Republic.com, argued that the Internet may weaken democracy because it allows citizens to isolate themselves within groups that share their own views and experiences, and thus cut themselves off from any information that might challenge their beliefs, a phenomenon known as cyberbalkanization. He recanted many of the views expressed in the book before his confirmation as administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in order to receive Senate confirmation. Asked by Rudy Takala if Sunstein’s views nonetheless persisted in the Obama administration, U.S. Federal Communications Commission Commissioner Michael O’Rielly eluded the question, answering, „Everybody needs a nudge, right?“

Sunstein co-authored Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Yale University Press, 2008) with economist Richard Thaler of the University of Chicago. Nudge discusses how public and private organizations can help people make better choices in their daily lives. Thaler and Sunstein argue that

People often make poor choices – and look back at them with bafflement! We do this because as human beings, we all are susceptible to a wide array of routine biases that can lead to an equally wide array of embarrassing blunders in education, personal finance, health care, mortgages and credit cards, happiness, and even the planet itself.[citation needed]

The ideas in the book proved popular with politicians such as U.S. President Barack Obama, British Prime Minister David Cameron, and the British Conservative Party in general. The „Nudge“ idea has been criticised. Dr Tammy Boyce, from public health foundation The King’s Fund, has said:

We need to move away from short-term, politically motivated initiatives such as the ’nudging people‘ idea, which are not based on any good evidence and don’t help people make long-term behavior changes.

Sunstein is a contributing editor to The New Republic and The American Prospect and is a frequent witness before congressional committees. He played an active role in opposing the impeachment of Bill Clinton in 1998.

In recent years, Sunstein has been a guest writer on The Volokh Conspiracy blog as well as the blogs of law professors Lawrence Lessig (Harvard) and Jack Balkin (Yale). He is considered so prolific a writer that in 2007, an article in the legal publication The Green Bag coined the concept of a „Sunstein number“ reflecting degrees of separation between various legal authors and Sunstein, paralleling the Erdős numbers sometimes assigned to mathematician authors.

He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (elected 1992) and the American Law Institute (since 1990).

Sunstein is a proponent of judicial minimalism, arguing that judges should focus primarily on deciding the case at hand, and avoid making sweeping changes to the law or decisions that have broad-reaching effects. Some view him as liberal, despite Sunstein’s public support for George W. Bush’s judicial nominees Michael W. McConnell and John G. Roberts, as well as providing strongly maintained theoretical support for the death penalty.

Much of his work also brings behavioral economics to bear on law, suggesting that the „rational actor“ model will sometimes produce an inadequate understanding of how people will respond to legal intervention.

Sunstein has collaborated with academics who have training in behavioral economics, most notably Daniel Kahneman, Richard Thaler, and Christine M. Jolls, to show how the theoretical assumptions of law and economics should be modified by new empirical findings about how people actually behave.[citation needed]

The interpretation of federal law should be made not by judges but by the beliefs and commitments of the U.S. president and those around him, according to Sunstein. „There is no reason to believe that in the face of statutory ambiguity, the meaning of federal law should be settled by the inclinations and predispositions of federal judges. The outcome should instead depend on the commitments and beliefs of the President and those who operate under him,“ argued Sunstein.

Sunstein (along with his coauthor Richard Thaler) has elaborated the theory of libertarian paternalism. In arguing for this theory, he counsels thinkers/academics/politicians to embrace the findings of behavioral economics as applied to law, maintaining freedom of choice while also steering people’s decisions in directions that will make their lives go better. With Thaler, he coined the term „choice architect.“

In 2002, at the height of controversy over Bush’s creation of military commissions without Congressional approval, Sunstein stepped forward to insist, „Under existing law, President George W. Bush has the legal authority to use military commissions“ and that „President Bush’s choice stands on firm legal ground.“ Sunstein scorned as „ludicrous“ an argument from law professor George P. Fletcher, who believed that the Supreme Court would find Bush’s military commissions without any legal basis.

In his book Democracy and the Problem of Free Speech Sunstein says there is a need to reformulate First Amendment law. He thinks that the current formulation, based on Justice Holmes‘ conception of free speech as a marketplace „disserves the aspirations of those who wrote America’s founding document.“ The purpose of this reformulation would be to „reinvigorate processes of democratic deliberation, by ensuring greater attention to public issues and greater diversity of views.“ He is concerned by the present „situation in which like-minded people speak or listen mostly to one another,“ and thinks that in „light of astonishing economic and technological changes, we must doubt whether, as interpreted, the constitutional guarantee of free speech is adequately serving democratic goals.“ He proposes a „New Deal for speech [that] would draw on Justice Brandeis‘ insistence on the role of free speech in promoting political deliberation and citizenship.“

Some of Sunstein’s work has addressed the question of animal rights, as he co-authored a book dealing with the subject, has written papers on it, and was an invited speaker at „Facing Animals,“ an event at Harvard University described as „a groundbreaking panel on animals in ethics and the law.“ „Every reasonable person believes in animal rights,“ he says, continuing that „we might conclude that certain practices cannot be defended and should not be allowed to continue, if, in practice, mere regulation will inevitably be insufficient—and if, in practice, mere regulation will ensure that the level of animal suffering will remain very high.“

Sunstein’s views on animal rights generated controversy when Sen. Saxby Chambliss (R-Ga.) blocked his appointment to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs by Obama. Chambliss objected to the introduction of , a volume edited by Sunstein and his then-partner Martha Nussbaum. On of the introduction, during a philosophical discussion about whether animals should be thought of as owned by humans, Sunstein notes that personhood need not be conferred upon an animal in order to grant it various legal protections against abuse or cruelty, even including legal standing for suit. For example, under current law, if someone saw their neighbor beating a dog, they cannot sue for animal cruelty because they do not have legal standing to do so. Sunstein suggests that granting standing to animals, actionable by other parties, could decrease animal cruelty by increasing the likelihood that animal abuse will be punished.

Sunstein has argued, „We should celebrate tax day.“ Sunstein argues that since government (in the form of police, fire departments, insured banks, and courts) protects and preserves property and liberty, individuals should happily finance it with their tax dollars:

In what sense is the money in our pockets and bank accounts fully ‚ours‘? Did we earn it by our own autonomous efforts? Could we have inherited it without the assistance of probate courts? Do we save it without the support of bank regulators? Could we spend it if there were no public officials to coordinate the efforts and pool the resources of the community in which we live? Without taxes, there would be no liberty. Without taxes there would be no property. Without taxes, few of us would have any assets worth defending. [It is] a dim fiction that some people enjoy and exercise their rights without placing any burden whatsoever on the public… There is no liberty without dependency.

Sunstein goes on to say:

If government could not intervene effectively, none of the individual rights to which Americans have become accustomed could be reliably protected. […] This is why the overused distinction between „negative“ and „positive“ rights makes little sense. Rights to private property, freedom of speech, immunity from police abuse, contractual liberty and free exercise of religion – just as much as rights to Social Security, Medicare and food stamps – are taxpayer-funded and government-managed social services designed to improve collective and individual well-being.

In a recent book, Sunstein proposes that government recognition of marriage be discontinued. „Under our proposal, the word marriage would no longer appear in any laws, and marriage licenses would no longer be offered or recognized by any level of government,“ argues Sunstein. He continues, „the only legal status states would confer on couples would be a civil union, which would be a domestic partnership agreement between any two people.“ He goes on further, „Governments would not be asked to endorse any particular relationships by conferring on them the term marriage,“ and refers to state-recognized marriage as an „official license scheme.“ Sunstein addressed the Senate on 11 July 1996 advising against the Defense of Marriage Act.

Sunstein co-authored a 2008 paper with Adrian Vermeule, titled „Conspiracy Theories,“ dealing with the risks and possible government responses to conspiracy theories resulting from „cascades“ of faulty information within groups that may ultimately lead to violence. In this article they wrote, „The existence of both domestic and foreign conspiracy theories, we suggest, is no trivial matter, posing real risks to the government’s antiterrorism policies, whatever the latter may be.“ They go on to propose that, „the best response consists in cognitive infiltration of extremist groups“, where they suggest, among other tactics, „Government agents (and their allies) might enter chat rooms, online social networks, or even real-space groups and attempt to undermine percolating conspiracy theories by raising doubts about their factual premises, causal logic or implications for political action.“ They refer, several times, to groups that promote the view that the US Government was responsible or complicit in the September 11 attacks as „extremist groups.“

The authors declare that there are five hypothetical responses a government can take toward conspiracy theories: „We can readily imagine a series of possible responses. (1) Government might ban conspiracy theorizing. (2) Government might impose some kind of tax, financial or otherwise, on those who disseminate such theories. (3) Government might itself engage in counterspeech, marshaling arguments to discredit conspiracy theories. (4) Government might formally hire credible private parties to engage in counterspeech. (5) Government might engage in informal communication with such parties, encouraging them to help.“ However, the authors advocate that each „instrument has a distinctive set of potential effects, or costs and benefits, and each will have a place under imaginable conditions. However, our main policy idea is that government should engage in cognitive infiltration of the groups that produce conspiracy theories, which involves a mix of (3), (4) and (5).“

Sunstein and Vermeule also analyze the practice of recruiting „nongovernmental officials“; they suggest that „government can supply these independent experts with information and perhaps prod them into action from behind the scenes,“ further warning that „too close a connection will be self-defeating if it is exposed.“ Sunstein and Vermeule argue that the practice of enlisting non-government officials, „might ensure that credible independent experts offer the rebuttal, rather than government officials themselves. There is a tradeoff between credibility and control, however. The price of credibility is that government cannot be seen to control the independent experts.“ This position has been criticized by some commentators who argue that it would violate prohibitions on government propaganda aimed at domestic citizens. Sunstein and Vermeule’s proposed infiltrations have also been met by sharply critical scholarly critiques.

In the 1980s and early 1990s, Sunstein was married to Lisa Ruddick, whom he met as an undergraduate at Harvard. She is now associate professor of English at the University of Chicago, specializing in British modernism. Later, his partner and co-author was Martha Nussbaum, philosopher, classicist, and professor of law at the University of Chicago.

On July 4, 2008, Sunstein married Samantha Power, professor of public policy at Harvard, now United States Ambassador to the United Nations, whom he met when they worked as campaign advisors to Barack Obama, their friend and his former colleague at the University of Chicago Law School.

The wedding took place in the Church of Mary Immaculate, Loher near Waterville, County Kerry in Power’s native Ireland on July 4, 2008. They have two children: a son, Declan Power Sunstein (April 24, 2009). and a daughter, Rían Power Sunstein (June 1, 2012).

1990–1999

2000–2009

2010 onwards

Осимхен, Виктор

* Количество игр и голов за профессиональный клуб считается только для различных лиг национальных чемпионатов.

** Количество игр и голов за национальную сборную в официальных матчах.

Виктор Джеймс Осимхен (англ. Victor James Osimhen; родился 29 декабря 1998 года, Лагос) — нигерийский футболист, нападающий клуба «Ультимэйт Страйкерс». Лучший молодой футболист (U-17) Африки 2015 года по версии африканской конфедерации футбола.

Осимхен начал карьеру на родине в клубе «Ультимэйт Страйкерс». В 2015 году после юношеского чемпионата мира к Витору проявили интерес миланский «Интер» и дортмундская «Боруссия», а лондонский «Арсенал» и немецкий «Вольфсбург» пригласили на просмотр. В конце января Виктор подписал контракт с немецким клубом, который вступит в силу в январе 2017 года.

Осенью 2015 года Осимхен в составе сборной Нигерии стал победителем юношеского чемпионата мира в Чили. На турнире он сыграл в матчах против команд США, Чили, Хорватии, Австралии, Бразилии, Мексики и Мали. По итогам соревнований Виктор, забивая в каждом из семи матчей, провёл десять голов, включая хет-трик в ворота австралийцев, и стал лучшим бомбардиром чемпионата.

Международные

Нигерия (до 17)

Индивидуальные

1 Удох (в)2 Джон3 Ибе4 Эногела5 Хилару6 Майкл7 Бамбгбойе8 Чуквуезе9 Осимхен10 Нвакали11 Мадуэке12 Агор13 Осикель14 Икву15 Анумуду16 Амос (в)17 Эбере18 Эссьен19 Алими20 Оквонкво21 Чиана (в)тренер: Эммануэль Амунеке

Scottish Financial Enterprise

Scottish Financial Enterprise (SFE) is the industry trade group that represents and promotes the interests of Scotland’s international financial services industry. It is a company limited by guarantee based in Edinburgh.

SFE’s members encompass all of the main sectors within the industry, including banking; fund management and investment management; general insurance, life assurance and pensions; asset servicing; corporate finance and broking services; professional services (law firms, chartered accountants and auditors) and support services. In addition, the membership includes professional bodies (e.g. the Chartered Institute of Bankers in Scotland) and government bodies: the Bank of England and Scottish Enterprise.

SFE’s members account for over 70 per cent of those employed within the financial services industry in Scotland, which employs over 113,000 in Scotland and a further 100,000 in support roles.

The chairman of SFE is an ex officio member of the Financial Services Advisory Board of the Scottish Government, which is convened by the First Minister of Scotland.